Almost all states within the United States have adopted state education standards as a tool to measure the knowledge and skills needed and the expected outcomes students should be achieving within a given school year (Juarez, 1999). There are two kinds of standards, content standards and performance standards. Content standards indicate what a student should know and be able to do. Performance standards incorporate content standards, but are expanded to include suggested tasks, sample student work, and teacher commentary on that work (Georgia Department of Education, 2004). According to Robert J. Marzano, a Senior Fellow at the Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning Institute in Aurora, Colorado, “Standards hold the greatest hope for significantly improving student achievement” (Scherer, 2001, p.l). A recent RAND report and a study conducted by the University of Texas concluded that significant increases in student achievement have been linked to standards-based efforts (Biemesderfer, 2004).

Author's Biographies

Beth Gordy Waddell holds a BSEd from Columbus State University in Early Childhood Education. She was a Classroom Teacher and Assistant Administrator for seven years at Waverly Hall Christian Academy, until she helped start Trinity Christian Academy where she is the Administrator. Beth is currently working toward an M.Ed in Educational Leadership at Columbus State University and plans to continue her graduate studies at CSU until she receives her Ed.D in Educational Leadership.

This is an original work


This work has not been previously published


IRB approval verification