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Abstract

This article explores literature related to Time-of-Day instruction and possible impact on student achievement for students. The possibility of schools as a contributing factor to the problem of low academic performance by some students due to a conflict between personal chronotype and school schedule may have research significance. In order for learning to take place, student engagement must be paramount and provide optimal opportunities for students to utilize their personal learning, for modalities may hinge on physical readiness as well. Several studies at multiple grade levels related to the investigation of circadian rhythms and biological patterns which indicate an effect on student performance are examined. Learning-styles research reveals increased learning occurs when a student is taught and assessed at their preferred time-of-day. Current research from later-start time initiatives in schools indicates positive outcomes for some students. Collectively, these studies suggest that one strategy to maximize the potential for learning may be consideration of a student’s chronotype, the preference to function during certain times of the day.

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