Date of Award





Doctor of Education

Degree Type



Counseling, Foundations & Leadership

First Advisor

Thomas J. McCormack

Second Advisor

Parul Acharya

Third Advisor

Victor Salazar


The purpose of this causal-comparative research was to examine whether differences exist between the time allotted for delivering content, the time allotted for lesson planning, the time allotted for student assessment, instructional perceptions regarding mandated testing, perceptions regarding pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), level of ease of planning, level of understanding of Georgia Standards of Excellence (GSE), level of understanding of the teaching-assessment cycle, and usage of the system provided pacing guides within public elementary schools in one Georgia school district across the content areas of ELA/reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. The research also examined the differences in instructional strategies used in public elementary schools across different content areas. The PCK framework was used as the basis for this research study. PCK refers to a teacher’s ability to blend content knowledge with effective instructional practices in a manner that allows students to learn. The teachers’ instructional practices will enable school leaders and district leaders more knowledge when providing necessary resources and professional development opportunities. Using an adapted Status of Social Studies Survey (S4) through the Qualtrics platform, teachers disclosed their instructional practices for all content areas.