Disentangling boundary extension and normalization of view memory for scenes

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Visual Cognition



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Boundary extension, Normalization, Scene, Visual cognition, Visual memory


© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Boundary extension (BE) is a memory error for close-up views of scenes in which participants tend to remember a picture of a scene as depicting a more wide-angle view than what was actually displayed. However, some experiments have yielded data that indicate a normalized memory of the views depicted in a set of scenes, suggesting that memory for the previously studied scenes has become drawn toward the average view in the image set. In previous studies, normalization is only found when the retention interval is very long or when the stimuli no longer appear to represent a spatial expanse. In Experiment 1, we examine whether normalization can influence results for scenes depicting a partial view of space and when the memory test occurs immediately following the study block by manipulating the degree of difference between studied close-up and wide-angle scenes. In Experiment 2, normalization is induced in a set of scenes by creating conditions expected to lead to memory interference, suggesting that this may be the cause of view normalization. Based on the multi-source model of BE, these scenes should be extended during perception (Intraub, H. (2010). Rethinking scene perception: A multisource model. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 52, 231–265). In Experiment 3, we show that BE is indeed observable if the same scenes are tested differently, supporting the notion that BE is primarily a perceptual phenomenon while normalization is a memory effect.

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